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Denmark

Yearbook 2005

2005 DenmarkDenmark. According to countryaah, Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen announced a new election to the Folketing at the beginning of the year, which was held in February. After a short electoral movement, the bourgeois coalition succeeded in defending its position in the elections. Admittedly, Fogh Rasmussen's Liberal party Venstre lost four seats and stayed at 52, but the Conservative government partner went ahead with two seats to 18 and the support party of the Danish People's Party increased by two seats to 24. The bourgeois majority left Radical Venstre's big winner without influence. Radical Venstre went from nine to 17 seats. The Social Democrats lost five seats and ended up at 47, which led to party leader Mogens Lykketoft leaving his post. Helle Thorning-Schmidt was chosen as his successor.

In April, it was 200 years since the author and storyteller Hans Christian Andersen was born. With Queen Margrethe at the forefront, Denmark began a year-long celebration, and the country's biggest cultural event in history, the show "It was once", was broadcast worldwide.

In connection with the 60th anniversary in May of Denmark's liberation from the Nazi occupation, Prime Minister Fogh Rasmussen made an official apology for the extradition of innocent people from Denmark to Germany during the Second World War. He described it as "shameful" that Jews and others had been handed over to Hitler Germany with the good memory of the Danish authorities. In July, President George W. Bush visited Copenhagen and met with Anders Fogh Rasmussen to express America's gratitude for Danish support for the war in Iraq. Protest demonstrations took place where both American and Danish flags were burned.

During the summer, a diplomatic struggle between Denmark and Canada developed over the right to a small and uninhabited rock island, Hans Island, between Greenland and Canada. Intense media debates raged in both countries and both foreign ministers met in conjunction with a meeting of the UN General Assembly in New York without being able to resolve the conflict.

In October, Crown Princess Mary gave birth to a boy, who in turn follows his father, Crown Prince Frederik, to inherit the Danish throne.

The Jutland Post sparked uproarious debate and caused diplomatic riots when the magazine published twelve illustrations of the Prophet Muhammad in September. Images of Muhammad are seen by many Muslims as blasphemy, and in addition, the Prophet was portrayed in bad days in some of the satirical drawings. Some cartoonists received death threats and militant Internet sites were reported to have designated Denmark as a terror target because of the illustrations. Danish Muslims conducted demonstrations, and the ambassadors from a number of Muslim countries protested in letters to the Prime Minister demanding an apology from the newspaper, which however referred to freedom of expression. Egypt threatened to interrupt the dialogue with Denmark on human rights and its foreign minister called for international protest against the Jutland Post. During a visit to Denmark in November, the Prime Minister of Turkey distanced himself from the drawings and demanded respect for the sacred symbols of Islam. Prime Minister Fogh Rasmussen defended the Danish freedom of expression and stated that some "specific conditions" must be met if Turkey one day wants to become a member of the EU. Following the announcement by the Islamic State organization, the UN Commission on Human Rights asked the Danish government to give its views on the Muhammad cartoons.

2005 Denmark

The 1966 parliamentary election surprisingly led to a majority for the Social Democracy and SF, even though the Social Democrats lost 7 seats. SF doubled its number of votes and mandates (to 20) - among other things. due to great dissatisfaction with the Social Democracy's housing policy and SF's proposal for a new housing, tax and military policy. A minority in SF with Aksel Larsen in the lead wanted to start a government cooperation with the Social Democracy, but the majority agreed to only establish cooperation between the two parties. SF undertook to act as a parliamentary support party for the Social Democracy, but received only small concessions in return: no changes to foreign policy. In March 1967, a contact committee was set up with representatives of the two parties to try to coordinate the policy in the Parliament. The bourgeois press quickly renamed the committee "The Red Cabinet". At a tax bill that same month, all SF representatives in the Folketing voted for the "VAT" - the value added tax on all goods. Together with the party's vote for the Finance Act and military appropriations, this created a growing resistance inward in SF. At a congress in June, SF's policy in the Parliament was voted down and a more left-leaning main board was elected. The final breach occurred in December 1967, after the government devalued the Danish krone and at the same time proposed "freezing" of a lifetime portion (automatic wage adjustment). Six of the SF members of Parliament voted against, and when the bourgeois did the same for tactical reasons, the government collapsed. However, at an extraordinary SF congress soon after, Aksel Larsen got the wing a narrow majority.The Left Socialists (VS). In the January 1968 elections, VS got four seats while SF went back to 11, and the Social Democrats lost another seven. Thus, a bourgeois majority. The Left, the Conservative People's Party and the Radical Left, formed government (the VKR government 1968-71).

The defeat also immediately hit the Social Democracy, but strategically the party had won an important victory. Just as it managed to stifle DKP after World War II, it had in 1966-67 managed to show that SF was not fit to enter into a government cooperation. Until the beginning of the 1990's, the Social Democracy used these experiences to reject almost any political cooperation with the left.

In terms of both the establishment of relations with the working class and the internal political clarification, the new party VS in the first years was marked by great confusion and constant divisions. Only about 1974-75 can we talk about organizational consolidation and a political-strategic clarification.

Copenhagen - theater

Until the 17th century, the theater that could be experienced in the city was largely equal to spectacular royal manifestations. combined with school drama. In addition, German-Dutch hiking troops; for such, in 1663, the town's first permanent theater was built on Slotsholmen; however, it lasted only three years.

The idea of ​​creating a theater for both the court and the city marked the development; the performances of the French court troops were sometimes accessible to others than the narrow circle, at the opera house in Bredgade from 1703.

But it was not until the opening of the Danish theater in 1722 in Lille Grønnegade that professional theater was introduced in Danish. Lille Grønnegadeteatret closed again in 1728. After a religiously motivated theater-free period of almost 20 years, the Danish theater activities in 1748 took place on Kongens Nytorv.

The Royal Theater was transferred to the Ministry of Culture in 1849, and a bourgeois director was appointed. The theater had undergone a development from a slightly suspicious establishment to a central cultural institution also housing opera and ballet, from the very beginning with a monopoly position in the city. Outside the ramparts there were decidedly amusement theaters.

But now the possibility was opened for the creation of the so-called second theaters; in 1848 Casino in Amaliegade, in 1857 Folketeatret in Nørregade and in 1883 Dagmarteatret in Jernbanegade.

However, the Royal Theater still possessed a monopoly on certain genres and plays, and it therefore became a popular repertoire that characterized the new scenes.

Since then, Dagmarteatret has positioned itself with a literary repertoire as the national stage's bad conscience. From 1889 the monopoly was broken: Had the Royal Theater not played a play for ten years, it would have been accessible to the private stages.

As a result, the national stage for a number of years revolved around a so-called repertoire of duties, including Holberg. The competition intensified further with the opening of the New Theater in 1908, initially for the lighter genre. An artistically ambitious challenge lay in the Betty Nansen Theater on Frederiksberg Allé, opened under that name in 1917.

Among several new, often smaller scenes, the Knights' Hall in Frederiksberg stood out in the 1930's, especially with a bold, modern repertoire. In the following decades, Frederiksberg Theater and Allé-Scenen (the former Betty Nansen Theater) were added.

Where the Royal Theater came under the Ministry of Education, the private theaters were under the Ministry of Justice, and public support was minimal. It was not until the heyday of the 1960's that cultural policy also accommodated private theaters. From 1961, the entire area came under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture. Up until the 1960's, Det Ny Teater in particular stood for a distinguished repertoire of quality, but in 1970/71 ran into an acute economic crisis that threatened to close the theater and drew attention to the operating conditions of private theaters.

In line with the growing democratization of the arts, the problems were sought through a subscription scheme, publicly funded and administered by ARTE. In 1976, nine Copenhagen stages were initially merged into the Greater Copenhagen Regional Stage with a certain joint and several liability for any operating deficit at the individual theater, from 1991 replaced by the Greater Copenhagen Theater Community, where each theater is responsible for its operation, the "money bag model". From 2006, this model has been continued in Hovedstadens Teater, which in connection with the municipal reform replaces the theater community as a purely state subsidy scheme, in contrast to earlier where municipalities, counties and the state shared the support crowns.

An actual experimental repertoire was provided by the smaller stages, first Fiolteatret (1962), followed by Boldhus Teatret (1965) and CaféTeatret (1967) and helped by the possibility of support for "other theater operations" in a law from 1963. From 1970, the Royal Theater also got its intimate stage.

Democratization of theater life also characterized the often society-oriented group theater of the 1960's and 1970's, as at Fiolteatret or Christiania's Solvognen. The social debate also colored the repertoire in the established theater as at the Folketeatret, while the theatrical innovation in the 1980's characterized the total theater productions at Gladsaxe Teater (inaugurated in 1964).

The theatrical image of the 1990's has shown a new form of experimental theater, performance, with a center in Kanonhallen in Østerbro, which from 1991 replaced Saltlageret ved Søerne as an alternative venue.

It was a breakthrough when Allerødgruppen Dr. In 1992, Dante was awarded the Aveny Theater on Frederiksberg Allé, with a special appeal to a young audience. At the same time, the Betty Nansen Theater under the leadership of Peter Langdal and Henrik Hartmann has firmly established itself as the city's most interesting major stage.

But the dominant trend in the 1990's became, as a result of austerity measures in the larger theaters, a bet on the safe: Entertainment and musicals, a line that, for example, Nørrebro's Theater and the Amager Stage have followed for years; also Gasworks accounts in the 1990's for large musical creations.

Since the end of the 1990's, the Royal Theater, despite the establishment of two new experimental stages in Turbinehallerne in 1997 and a much-needed renovation of Stærekassen in 2002, has clearly lacked a unifying identity as the country's national stage.

This has resulted in scattered fencing in the repertoire choice, where especially the absence of classics is striking. A new playhouse with several stages on the waterfront will be inaugurated according to plan in 2008. At the same time, Stærekassen and Turbinehallerne will be transferred to another purpose.

 

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