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Yearbook 2005

2005 ItalyAccording to Digopaul, Italy is one of the EU members located in south Europe. Protests erupted when a smoking ban was introduced in public places on January 10. Civilian-clad police and health inspectors sneaked around cafes and restaurants and handed out fines to visitors who broke the ban and to establishments that allowed guests to smoke.

In February, Sweden's ambassador to Italy was called to the Italian Foreign Ministry to hear the government's upset over a campaign in Swedish Television for Independent Television. The campaign said that Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi controls 90% of the nationwide TV channels in Italy.

2005 Italy

Four employees at Linate Airport in Milan were sentenced in March to prison sentences of up to just over four years for causing death to another in connection with the 2001 accident, when 118 people, including several Swedes, died when a SAS plane collided with a smaller plane on the ground.

A serious diplomatic conflict erupted in the spring between the US and Italy following the death of Italian intelligence agent Nicola Calipari in Iraq on March 4. Calipari had been instrumental in the release of a kidnapped Italian journalist. The agent and the newly released journalist were traveling in a car on their way to Baghdad airport when American soldiers opened fire on the car and Calipari was shot dead. The Americans stated that the car was driving too fast and that the driver did not respond to warning signals. On April 26, an American investigation determined that the American soldiers had done no wrong. The Italian investigation a month later found that inexperience and stress contributed to an overreaction in Americans. The Italians claimed that the car was driving at legal speed and that no warning signals were given.

The shooting sparked strong feelings among the Italian public, with a majority opposed to the country's troop presence in Iraq. Calls for Italian retreat from Iraq barked. The schism echoed somewhat since US President George W. Bush apologized and personally called Berlusconi to normalize relations.

Regional elections in April meant a loss of government for the parties. As a result of this, when the coalition partner Christian Democratic UDC chose to leave the government, Berlusconi was forced to submit its resignation application. However, President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi asked Berlusconi to form a new government coalition. A new right-wing government with small changes was installed on April 23.

Between June and September, arrest warrants were issued against 22 US CIA agents, accused of illegally removing 2003 terrorist Egyptian Abu Omar who had been granted political asylum in Italy. At the time of the kidnapping, an Italian investigation was already underway against Omar as a result of terrorist suspicions and the abduction would therefore having sabotaged ongoing police work. Rumor has it that Omar flew to Cairo where he was tortured during questioning. The tours around Omar and the CIA agents again stunned Italian-American relations.

In June, a referendum was held to alleviate I's restrictive law against infertility treatments. A majority voted to lift the restrictions. However, turnout was so low (26%) that the result was invalidated. The Catholic Church had called for a boycott of the referendum, which was said to have affected the Italians.

The terrorist attacks in London's subway in July caused Berlusconi to increase police and military preparedness for fear of terrorist acts on Italian soil. Anti-terrorism laws were tightened at the same time. Berlusconi also announced that 300 of the 2,700 Italian soldiers in Iraq would be taken home in September.

After several legal and diplomatic tours, in September 27-year-old Hussain Osman, suspected of participation in the failed terrorist attack in London's subway on July 21, was extradited by Italy to Britain.

In July, central bank governor Antonio Fazio was accused of committing misconduct when acting in favor of an Italian bank, Banca Popolare Italiana, in front of the Dutch ABN Amro in the sale of the Italian bank Banca Antonveneta. Finance Minister Domenico Siniscalco and many others demanded Fazio's departure. The political tug-of-war led to the departure of the finance minister in September. The new Finance Minister Giulio Tremonti was also sharply critical of Fazio, whose mandate was lifelong. Despite calls from Berlusconi to Fazio to leave, he chose to remain. An investigation of the banking business began and in December Fazio chose to step down as political pressure on him increased further. Due to legislative changes, the new term of governor Mario Draghi became only six years. In November, Parliament passed constitutional amendments that strengthen the regions vis--vis the central government and reduce the number of members of Parliament. The Prime Minister's position is also strengthened. The changes will only take effect in 2012 and 2015.

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