Norway. Also in 2005, there was conflict over the Kurdish
Islamist mulla Krekar, who has long had asylum in Norway but who
has been accused of terror in Iraq. The government decided
to expel Krekar, who was appealing but lost in court, with
regard to the security of the state. However, the government
did not consider that the deportation could be enforced
before there were guarantees that Krekar was not threatened
by the death penalty in Iraq. However, Progress Party leader
Carl I. According to
countryaah, Hagen demanded an immediate deportation and said he
was more concerned about the security of the Norwegians than
for Krekar's security in Iraq.
In March, warnings came that the Norwegian economy was
about to overheat. An extended period of high oil prices had
led to sharply increased investments in the oil and gas
industry. Three large gas fields were under development at
the same time: Snøhvit north of the Northern Cape, Ormen
Lange southwest of Trondheim and the Kristin field between
Stavanger and Bergen. The record high oil prices led to the
State Petroleum Fund having grown to NOK 1,280 billion after
the third quarter of the year.
During the year, the 100th anniversary was celebrated by
N's independence and the union resolution between Norway and
Sweden. The prime ministers of both countries attended the
national day celebration on May 17 in Eidsvoll, and King
Harald and King Carl Gustaf jointly opened the new border
bridge at Svinesund in June.
In July, the government presented a report on the
so-called German children, usually children of a German
soldier and a Norwegian woman during the Second World War.
Many of these were taken from their mothers to foster homes
where abuse was common. The government now proposed SEK
20,000 in compensation for every child of war who suffered
from the suffering of society.
Before the Storting elections in September, Norway had gained
a new political alliance consisting of the Labor Party
(Labor Party), Socialist Left Party (SV) and the Center
Party (SP). The Labor Party, drawn with internal
fragmentation in recent years, now emerged as a united party
behind leader Jens Stoltenberg and advocated a more
traditional social democratic policy than in the 2001
For the fifth year in a row, Norway was ranked by the United
Nations Development Program UNDP as the world's best country
to live in, yet the electoral movement was largely about
shortcomings in welfare. Stoltenberg accused the bourgeois
government of neglecting the care of the elderly and
prioritizing tax cuts instead.
The election was a victory for the new red-green
alliance, which together received 87 of the parliament's 169
seats. Ap increased from 43 to 61 mandates, Sp increased by
a mandate to 11, while SV declined from 23 to 15.
The bourgeois minority government under Kjell Magne
Bondevik suffered a major defeat and decreased from 62 to 44
seats. In the election campaign, Bondevik rejected demands
from the Progress Party (Frp) on government cooperation and
was therefore fiercely attacked by Frp leader Carl I. Hagen.
In the election, Frp became the second largest party, with
an increase from 26 to 38 seats.
The new red-green tripartite coalition came into being in
October with Jens Stoltenberg (Ap) as prime minister, SV
leader Kristin Halvorsen as finance minister and Sp leader
Åslaug Haga as municipal and regional minister. Foreign
Minister became Jonas Gahr Støre (Ap). For the first time in
two decades, Norway had won a majority government.
Geography and settlement
The real urbanization in Norway is due neither to
agriculture nor to fishing, but to forestry, the third of
the traditional primary industries. From the 1500s, timber
exports became the most important extroverted trade next to
the fish trade. While the fish trade had previously provided
growth conditions for a single city - Bergen - the timber
trade from an early age provided the basis for an entire
chain of urban communities along the Norwegian coast.
Inland, in addition to the two or three traditional mining
towns, urban formations were few, and they were linked to
the transport of timber through lakes and streams.
The industry that broke through in the second half of the
19th century brought about a few significant changes in the
settlement pattern that the primary trades had created.
Until about 1905, the industry was placed in the existing
urban areas - although not in all: The smaller wooden cargo
and sailing ship towns declined relatively during the strong
urbanization of the country after 1870. - or undeveloped
areas - Odda, Sauda, Rjukan - but also for enhanced
urbanization of the established urban areas - Oslo, Bergen,
In summary, it can therefore be stated that the physical
distribution of humans over the Norwegian land is
predominantly determined by the farming conditions in a cold
but rainy country. Alongside the proliferation of
agriculture, trade based on fish and especially on timber
has for many centuries provided the basis for some
urbanization along the west and south coasts.
Alongside the business foundation, communication
opportunities have played a role for the settlement. In
Norway, people traditionally live if it is otherwise
possible by the sea - obviously due to transport. The
railroad was introduced as a means of transport in the
1850s, and broke through as a national means of transport
from the 1870s. It probably led to urban formations in the
form of «station towns» along the inland railways, but even
during the railway's sheer period up to approx. By 1920, it
was predominantly other factors affecting settlement. It was
initially the transition from sails to steam power in
shipping, and to some extent the factory production, which
broke through for three periods: 1870-80, 1890-95 and
1905-16 - the last most powerful. An urban base like the one
in Narvik, where the railway is the economic nerve, is one
of the exceptions in Norway.
The further development of transport seems to have
affected the settlement in two ways. In part, it has
strengthened the opportunities for scattered settlement,
which, since the 1930s, the grid network strengthened
agriculture by introducing milk routes, which made farmers'
main product more marketable. In part, since the 1960s, the
private car has made daily and weekly commuting possible
over long distances, slowing down an even stronger
concentration of the settlement than the one that would
otherwise have taken place.
The labor market has also affected the settlement in the
country. People have at all times moved away from
underemployment and where there was work to get. In the
period from 1815 to 1965, the population of Norway doubled.
But the national labor market could not absorb everyone, and
nearly a million Norwegians moved across the ocean to
America. Moving to and from abroad is of little importance
today for settlement and population development.
|Second scheduled service
|Tramways / suburban lanes
|Total domestic passenger transport
|Passenger transport in millions of
kilometers per person. year.
Source: Department of Transport Economics.
In the years following World War II, there has been
greater demand in the country than labor supply. But the
labor demand has been geographically unevenly distributed,
with the greatest concentration in the areas around the
Oslo, Trondheim, Kristiansand, Bergen and Stavanger
districts. Northern Norway, parts of Trøndelag and the inner
parts of southern Norway, on the other hand, had surplus
labor. This has resulted in very unequal population growth
in the different parts of the country. In the early 1950s,
the five metropolitan regions accounted for 42.5% of total
population growth; Ten years later for a full 67%.
The relocation took place in particular from Northern
Norway, Trøndelag outside Trondheim, as well as from the
mountain and fjord settlements in Southern Norway, and in
this way the population was concentrated on a small part of
the area in line with the structural changes in Norwegian
working life from labor-intensive agriculture, fisheries and
shipping., for large industry and service industries.
This restructuring of the population and thus of the
settlement is a central feature of the post-war period. Yet
the Norwegians moved far more before - measured in net
migration across county boundaries. Only during the crisis
and occupation years 1931-46 was the migration figure lower:
1 per year. 1000 residents, against just over 2 in the 1960s
and 70s. Immediately before the turn of the century, the
figure was 8 per cent. 1000 residents.
Norway's topographical features, with a longitudinal axis
that is worthy of a European great power and a width
corresponding to Jutland, have had many other consequences
than just for business and settlement. Culturally, the
country is characterized by regionalism, which strongly
modifies the impression of a homogeneous nation. The
cultural characteristics of the regions are in themselves
hardly greater than in other countries, but they have a
significant impact on the size of the country. The Norwegian
language dispute is an expression of this. Likewise the
administrative distance between «Oslo» and the rest of the
country. The relationship between Northern and Southern
Norway is characteristic of these differences. It has always
been characterized by a basic and insurmountable distance.
The only place where Norwegian military planning has
traditionally operated with a possible "demarcation line" in
war and hostile occupation, is between these two regions.
Also in today's Norwegian military thinking, the northern
counties stand out as a special area - an Achilles heel -
which regularly surprises foreign strategists.
In addition to the traditional administrative and
geographical distance between southern and northern Norway,
the cultural distance is expressed in the public treatment
of the Sami population, which is highly discriminatory and
has followed an assimilation line for generations. Every
part of Norwegian administration and politics, from church
and school to defense and census, has traditionally been
oriented towards obliterating or overlooking the Sami