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Yearbook 2005

Russian Federation. Pensioners across the Russian Federation protested in January that they had lost the benefit of free public transport from the beginning of the year and lost their discounts on medicines and electricity, among other things. In the demonstrations, slogans seemed like "Hitler took away a happy childhood and Putin a quiet old age". But President Vladimir Putin blamed the government and regional leaders and promised extra pension increases and continued opportunity for free local traffic.

2005 Russia

At Putin's summit with US President George W. Bush in Bratislava in February, the threat to democracy in the Russian Federation became a major theme. According to countryaah, the Russian president denied that the Russian Federation was developing in a totalitarian direction, and in his annual speech to the nation in the spring, Putin said that development "as a free and democratic country" is the Russian Federation's most important task.

2005 RussiaBut in May the Council of Europe pointed to Russian repression of the media, corruption and violence in the judiciary, and not least "disappearances" in Chechnya. In the same month, the oil company Yuko's chief Michail Chodorkovsky was sentenced to nine years in prison for, among other things. serious tax breaks and embezzlement. The huge tax claims against Yukos were seen by observers as a way for the Putin regime to crush Yukos and Chodorkovsky, which emerged as a political threat. The protracted trial was considered to have had a negative impact on the Moscow Stock Exchange and the growth of the Russian economy.

Shortly after the verdict against Chodorkovsky, it was announced that the state-controlled gas giant Gazprom would buy the leading quality magazine of the Russian Federation Izvestija. Thus, the independent Izvestija again became the government body during the Soviet era. Gazprom has previously included the TV channel MTV.

Putin gathered in May a large part of the world's leaders in Moscow to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Soviet Union's victory over Nazi Germany in World War II. However, the Presidents of Estonia and Latvia had refused, citing that the end of the Second World War in the Baltics was followed by the Soviet occupation, which the Russian Federation believes should be apologized and compensated. US President George W. Bush stood by the Balts on a visit to Latvia, and from the EU demanded Russian recognition that the Soviet rule in the Baltic was illegal. The Kremlin responded sharply that it was not an occupation and President Putin challenged the outside world by calling the disintegration of the Soviet Union "the greatest geopolitical disaster of the century".

President Putin saw more and more states of the former Soviet Union withdraw from the Russian Federation. In the spring he visited Ukraine and tried to correct the mistake of investing in the losing presidential candidate the year before. But after Putin's visit, Ukraine formed a "Union for Democratic States" with Georgia, Azerbaijan and Moldova with the intention of withdrawing from the Russian Federation's sphere of interest. Putin also visited Israel in the spring, the first visit there by a ruler from the Kremlin.

In August, the Russian Federation and China conducted their first joint military exercise. By analysts, it was seen as politically oriented toward the United States, an attempt to strengthen positions in the security-political and economic rivalry between the major powers.

Western Siberia was affected during the late summer and autumn by the dreaded type of bird flu that can spread to humans. Experts warned that the virus could be spread by migratory birds to the southern Russian Federation and on to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The EU banned the import of birds and poultry products from the Russian Federation.

The violent turmoil in the Caucasus spread during the year in the southern Russian federation. In October, hundreds of hundreds of armed rebels in the Republic of Kabardinia-Balkaria attacked police stations and other government buildings in the capital Naltjik, where fierce fighting was fought with Russian government forces. According to official data, over 90 rebels, more than 30 government soldiers and nine civilians were killed, while Chechen rebel leader Shamil Basayev claimed that 41 Islamic warriors and 140 "unfaithful" were killed. In Chechnya's neighboring republics of Dagestan and Ingushetia, there were numerous small-scale armed attacks, evidence that Moscow does not have full control over the poor, Muslim parts of the southern Russian federation.

In November, the duma approved by a large majority a law that makes the work of NGOs more difficult, eg. rights groups. After over a thousand organizations had protested, President Putin promised to discuss the law with Parliament.

In the local elections in December, the ultranationalist party Rodina was excluded from a court in Moscow because the party's campaign contained racist messages. At the same time, a survey showed that 59% of Russians said yes to the slogan "Russia to the Russians". Racist and xenophobic moods became evident in various parts of society during the year. In Parliament, 20 members demanded that all Jewish organizations in the country be banned, and fierce attacks against non-Russians appeared in the mass media. When President Putin attended the 60th anniversary of the Soviet troops' liberation from Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, he said he was ashamed of anti-Semitism and xenophobia in the Russian Federation.

In December, the construction of an approximately 120 km long gas pipeline in the Baltic Sea started from the Russian part of the Gulf of Finland to northern Germany. Management will link the world's largest gas reserves in the Russian Federation with the Western European market.

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