Central African Republic. After a military coup in 2003, which put an end to a long period of political chaos, the Central African Republic returned to a democratically elected leadership. Sitting military president François Bozizé won in a second election round with close to 65% of the vote. The new party alliance Convergence Kwa Na Kwa (National Assembly for Work and Re-Work) formed in support of Bozizé came to dominate the National Assembly with the help of a number of partyless members. Parties formed by former presidents went back. Prime Minister Célestin Gaombalé was elected President of Parliament and replaced as head of government by agriculture expert Élie Doté, who most recently served at the African Development Bank.
According to countryaah, Bangui is the capital and one of the major cities within the country of Central African Republic. The presidential election was preceded by a dispute over who would be allowed to run for office. The Constitutional Court wanted to exclude all aspirants except a few, but after the intervention of Bozizé, everyone was allowed to stand, except in 2003, Ange-Félix Patassé deposed who still lives in exile.
- Also see abbreviationfinder.org for how the acronym CT stands for the country of Central African Republic and other meanings of this two-letter abbreviation.
The regional economic cooperation organization CEMAC decided that the peacekeeping force of 380 men stationed in the Central African Republic in 2002 would remain the year out.
After months of silence, the fighting in June 2016 resumed between the various militias in the country. Despite the fact that MINUSCA had 12,870 uniformed personnel in the country, it was limited what they could do to combat – especially because of the country’s large geographical extent. After several years of reports of sexual assault by the French forces, the last French forces were withdrawn from the country in October. MINUSCA reported over 300 armed clashes during the year, costing over 500 civilian lives. At the end of the year, fighting took on a new dimension as contradictions in the militia led to internal armed clashes.
At the end of 2016, 434,000 were internally displaced, 468,000 were refugees in neighboring countries, and 2.3 million were displaced. out of the population of 4.8 depended on humanitarian aid.
A ceasefire between 14 militia groups was signed in Rome in June 2017. However, less than a day passed before fighting again broke out between the militia. In April, Uganda withdrew its soldiers from the country. They had formed the backbone of fighting LRA units in the country. From 2016, the main conflict between the militias was no longer religion, but economic control of mines and other natural resources – as in Congo.
History. – The armed rebellion, which broke out immediately after the 2005 elections, won by François Bozizé and concentrated in the north-eastern regions of the country, was opposed with the help of France, which had supported the rise of Bozizé himself and who offered the logistical support for his army. In February 2007, thanks to the mediation of Libya, an agreement was reached with the rebels of the Front démocratique du peuple centrafricain (FDPC) and in September of the same year the UN authorized the intervention of one of its missions, aimed at promoting peace in the border region between Chad and Central African Republic and to allow humanitarian workers to help the thousands of Sudanese displaced people who escaped the Dārfūr war, as well as to protect civilians from possible retaliation by the Sudanese army.
However, the situation in the country remained very unstable and saw the birth of new armed groups, while the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel movement from North Uganda, occupied the border areas. In June 2008 some armed groups agreed to sign an agreement, in September Parliament adopted a law granting amnesty to all rebels, and in January 2009 a national unity government was formed that included former rebel leaders and launched a program. demobilization and reintegration. In 2010 the UN closed its peacekeeping mission and in January 2011 the legislative and presidential elections took place which saw the victory of Bozizé and his party. However, the general situation of the country remained profoundly unstable and the control of the territory by the government was very precarious. Despite the signing of a new peace agreement with another of the rebel forces, in 2012 there was a general resumption of the rebellion and the proliferation of armed groups and small groups, some composed of Sudanese or Chadian mercenaries, to which were added LRA and gangs of common criminals. In short, a galaxy of armed realities that drew variable geographies on the ground, were born and disappeared, allied and fought, even if some showed greater consistency. Precisely these gave birth to a coalition, Seleka (in sango “alliance, union”) which first took over the North-East of the country, which has always been the center of the rebellion, and then advanced towards the larger cities up to the capital Bangui, which was captured in March 2013. Bozizé fled and the rebel leader, Michel Djotodia,
Areas controlled by armed groups
While the coup was condemned by the international community, in August Djotodia was sworn in as President of the Republic and in September he dissolved Seleka, but the armed militias completely escaped his control and, already guilty of numerous crimes during the advance for the conquest of the Country, they indulged in massacres and killings. The predominantly Muslim composition of Seleka transformed the civil war into a conflict of a religious nature, which saw the birth of the militia made up of Christians and animists, anti Balaka (in sango “antimachete, antidote”), and threw the country, never before crossed by religious tensions, in an escalation of violence: on December 5, 2013, about 10,000 displaced people massed at Bangui airport, which became 30,000 two weeks later and about 100,000 as of January 21, 2014, while at least 200,000 residents, out of 800,000, had abandoned the city. In December 2013 the UN authorized a peacekeeping mission promoted by the African Union and in the same month France decided to intervene militarily with its mission, Sangaris (named after a butterfly), later joined by a European contingent. Despite the broad mandate, the African Union mission encountered difficulties associated with being run by non-neutral neighboring states. In an increasingly complicated situation, in January 2014 Djotodia was forced to resign and give way to Catherine Samba-Panza (former mayor of Bangui). In April, the UN authorized a new peacekeeping mission which would replace the previous one in September, while in July it opened in the Republic of Congo.
As part of the Bangui National Reconciliation Forum, a Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction was signed in May 2015, with which the swift conduct of parliamentary and presidential elections, administrative decentralization and strengthening of the judiciary. An understanding was also reached on the principles for the disarmament and demobilization of armed groups, as well as on the release of child soldiers and the interruption of their recruitment.