Djibouti, Djibouti, officially the Arab Djumhurijja Djibouti [d ʒ -], French République de Djibouti [repy Republic də -], German Djibouti, state in northeast Africa, at the outlet of the Red Sea in the Gulf of Aden, with (2019) 973 600 residents; The capital is Djibouti.
- Official name: Republic of Djibouti
- License plate: DJI
- ISO-3166: DJ, DJI (262)
- Internet domain:.dj
- Currency: 1 Djibouti Franc (FD) = 100 Centimes
- Area: 23,200 km²
- Population (2019): 973 600
- Capital: Djibouti
- Official language (s): Arabic, French
- Form of government: Presidential Republic
- Administrative division: 5 districts and the capital with special status
- Head of State: President Ismail Omar Guelleh (since 8 May 1999)
- Head of government: Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed (since April 1, 2013)
- Religion (s): 94% Muslim (Sunni), 6% Christian
- Time zone: Central European Time +2 hours
- National holiday: June 27th
Location and infrastructure
- Location (geographical): Northeast Africa
- Position (coordinates): between 10 ° 55 ‘and 12 ° 43’ north latitude and 41 ° 48 ‘and 43 ° 25’ south longitude
- Climate: Dry and hot semi-desert climate
- Highest mountain: Moussa Ali (2 028 m)
- Road network (2013): 2,893 km
- Railway network (2017): 97 km
- Annual population growth (2020): 2.1%
- Birth rate (2020): 22.7 per 1000 inh.
- Death rate (2020): 7.3 per 1000 residents.
- Average age (2020): 24.9 years
- Average life expectancy (2020): 64.7 years (men 62.1; women 67.4)
- Age structure (2020): 30% younger than 15 years, 4% older than 65 years
- Literacy rate (15 year olds and older): N / A
- Mobile phone contracts (pre-paid and post-paid) (2018): 41 per 100 residents
- Internet users (2017): 56 per 100 residents
- GDP per capita (2019): US $ 2,936
- Total GDP (2019): $ 3.166 billion
- GNI per capita (2019): US $ 3,540
- Education expenditure (2018): 5.6% of GDP
- Military expenditure: n / a
- Unemployment rate (15 years and older) (2019): 10.3%
According to the constitution approved by referendum on September 4, 1992 (in force since September 15, 1992; last amended in 2010), Djibouti is a presidential republic. The head of state and commander-in-chief of the army is the president, who is directly elected for 6 years. He has extensive powers and appoints the prime minister. The legislature lies with the Chamber of Deputies, whose 65 members are elected for 5 years (universal suffrage for all citizens aged 18 and over). According to cancermatters, the constitution establishes a multi-party system and provides for a separation of legislative, executive and judicial branches as well as an independent judiciary.
The national flag has two horizontal stripes of equal width, light blue over green; on the leech there is an isosceles white triangle with a five-pointed red star in the center.
The coat of arms of June 27, 1977 shows under a five-pointed red star a spear covered by a round shield between two outward-pointing forearms (which symbolize the population groups Afar and Issa), each holding a knife, all surrounded by a wreath of leaves.
The national holiday is June 27th, it commemorates the achievement of independence in 1977.
The most influential parties include the Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès (RPP; former Unity Party), Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie (FRUD), and Parti Populaire Social Démocrate (PPSD). They belong to the Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle (UMP). The opposition alliance Union pour le Salut National (USN) includes, among others. Alliance républicaine pour la Démocratie (ARD) and Mouvement pour le Renouveau Démocratique et le Développement (MRD).
The most important trade union federation with more than 20 individual trade unions is the Union Générale du Travail (UGTD).
The total strength of the armed forces is 8,500 men, including the air force and naval elements comprising 250 soldiers each; The paramilitary forces include 2,000 members of the gendarmerie and 2,500 members of the National Security Police. The army is divided into an infantry and a support battalion, two border command battalions, an artillery battery as well as a tank and a paratrooper company.
Djibouti is administratively divided into 5 districts and the capital with special status.
There is a general jurisdiction with the court of first instance (Tribunal de première instance) and the court of appeal (Cour d’appel). Administrative disputes are decided by a special council (Conseil du contentieux administratif). For some areas of law there are Islamic cadre courts as well as the so-called traditional courts (Tribunaux coutumiers). The Supreme Court (Cour suprême) established in 1979 in the capital Djibouti stands above all branches of the judiciary. – The legal system is based on a mixture of traditional, Islamic and French law. In recent years, older laws have increasingly been replaced by new ones or modernized, for example the penal code with criminal procedure code adopted from French law in 1995; In 1997 the Labor Code was revised and revised. Family law has been codified in a family code for the first time since 2002.
The school system is based on the French model and is divided into a six-year primary level and a seven-year secondary level. In addition to the state schools, there are private schools, which are attended by around 10% of the students. There is a university in the capital Djibouti (founded in 2000).
The state does not allow freedom of the press and independent journalism. »La Nation«, published by the Ministry of Information, and the Arabic-language »Al Qarn« appear weekly.
The state news agency is the Agence djiboutienne d’actualité (ADI).
The state broadcaster “Radiodiffusion-Télévision de Djibouti” (RTD) broadcasts three radio programs in French, Arabic and in the national languages Afar and Somali, as well as a daily television program. The opposition radio “La Voix de Djibouti” broadcasts from Europe.