According to ehistorylib, in 2005, the population of Djibouti was estimated to be around 690,000 people. The majority of the population was of Somali descent, with a small minority of Afar and other ethnicities. The economy was largely dependent on foreign aid and remittances from the large Somali diaspora. Foreign relations were generally positive due to Djibouti’s commitment to democracy and its efforts to join the African Union. Politically, Djibouti was a semi-presidential republic with President Ismaïl Omar Guelleh at the helm. Guelleh had been elected in 1999 after a period of political instability under his predecessor Hassan Gouled Aptidon. Guelleh’s government focused on restoring peace and security within the country by negotiating with rebel groups as well as improving economic development through foreign investment. His policies were generally well received by most citizens although there were some concerns about public spending cuts and tax increases during his tenure.
Djibouti. According to countryaah, Djibouti is the capital and one of the major cities within the country of Djibouti. Ismail Umar Guelleh was re-elected president on April 8. The only candidate who had challenged him, Mohamed Daoud Chehem, had resigned in March on the grounds that he could not fund his campaign. Guelleh was reported to have received 100% of the vote. The turnout was reported to be 78.9%, a figure that the opposition questioned. After the election, protesters protested against the undemocratic elements of the election but were dispelled by police with tear gas.
- Also see abbreviationfinder.org for how the acronym DJ stands for the country of Djibouti and other meanings of this two-letter abbreviation.
During the fierce acts of war between government forces and FRUD, in September 1992 the government introduced a constitutional reform that reintroduced pluralism. In the May 1993 presidential election, Gouled was re-elected with more than 60% of the vote. Following calls from the FRUD, half the voters failed to participate and the opposition characterized the election as a “scam”.
The armed clashes intensified in the weeks leading up to the election and thousands fled to Ethiopia. The French government acted as a mediator in the conflict in the attempt to reach a ceasefire and then the opening of direct negotiations. For his part, Gouled believed the rebellion was part of an Ethiopian-inspired plan.
At the prospect of concluding an agreement with the government, FRUD split. The organization’s political bureau, led by Ahmad Dini Ahmad who opposed an agreement, was appointed and replaced by an “executive committee” headed by Ahmad Ougoureh Kible. Gouled and FRUD agreed in June to end the war, which had lasted 2 1/2 years.
In June, a demonstration, mainly attended by Afaras from the Arhiba region, who turned to the authorities for the destruction of their homes – justified by “security concerns” – was subjected to heavy reprisals from the orderly force. The police intervention cost 4 lives, while 20 were wounded and 300 arrested, including Muhammad Ahmad Issa, leader of the Opposition Unity Front.
The split in FRUD intensified in October and the organization’s leadership banned Ahmad Dini Ahmad and Muhammad Adoyta Yussuf from acting as activists or advocates for FRUD. Following a constitutional reform, in 1995 a faction of FRUD entered into an alliance with the ruling party. Ahmad Dini Ahmad characterized the deal as “treason.”
Demography and economic geography. – East African state. The fertility rate, equal to 2.5 children per woman, is down compared to 5.3 in 2006, however high enough to increase the population by about 15% between 2007 and 2014 (886,313 residents, according to one estimate UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs). Economic life depends almost entirely on services related to the free port and military ports of the United States and France, an activity which has given new impetus to the fight against piracy, while the commercial port has increased its importance thanks to the re-export of Ethiopian goods.