Europe System

Europe

To ensure that the EU can properly fulfill all its tasks, it is structured according to a certain system with many different institutions. We briefly explain what these facilities do and what they mean.

The European Parliament

It took many years for the European Parliament to have as many rights as today. There are currently 751 MPs from 28 nations. In the European elections, they are directly elected by the citizens of the member states and represent around 512 million citizens. The European elections take place every five years. The next election will take place in May 2019.

Each country has an exact number of seats, from Germany there are currently 96 according to Countryaah.com.

Just like in Germany, there are members of parliament in the parliament who belong to different parties. Parties with the same goals you have in fractions summarized. The SPD is, for example, in the fraction of the European Socialist Party, the CDU in the Christian-Democratic fraction.

An important area in the European Parliament are the so-called “standing committees”. There are 20 standing committees that deal with various topics: one of them is the Committee on Culture and Education.

Between 25 and 78 members work on the committees. The parliamentary committees meet once or twice a month in Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The members deal with a topic for many years. This makes them good experts and enables them to work on new guidelines and regulations.

Country Upcoming elections Turnout
Albania Parliamentary elections 2021 45 percent in the parliamentary elections in June 2017
Andorra Parliamentary elections 2023 68% in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Armenia parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2025 49% in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Azerbaijan presidential election 2025, parliamentary election 2025 46.8% in the 2020 parliamentary elections, 74.5% in the 2018 presidential elections
Belgium Parliamentary elections 2024 88 percent in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2022 54 percent in parliamentary and presidential elections 2018
Bulgaria parliamentary elections 2021, presidential elections 2021 52.6% in the 2017 parliamentary elections; 56 + 50% in the two rounds of the 2016 presidential election
Cyprus Parliamentary elections (Greek Cypriots) 2021, parliamentary elections (Turkish Cypriots) 2022, presidential elections (Greek Cypriots) 2023, presidential elections (Turkish Cypriots) 2025 66.7 percent in the Greek Cypriots ‘parliamentary elections in 2016, 83 percent and 82 percent in the Greek Cypriots’ presidential election in 2013 (two rounds), 72 percent and 73 percent in the Greek Cypriots ‘presidential election in 2018 (two rounds), 66 percent in the Turkish Cypriots’ parliamentary elections in 2018; 58 percent + 64 percent in the Turkish Cypriots’ presidential election in 2020
Denmark parliamentary elections by 2023 84.5% in the general election (2019)
Estonia Parliamentary elections 2023, Parliament elects President 2021 63% in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Finland parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2024 72% in the parliamentary elections 2019, 66.7% in the presidential elections 2018
France presidential and parliamentary elections 2022 77/75% in the 1st / 2nd round of the 2017 presidential election,
49/43% in the 1st / 2nd round of the 2017 parliamentary election
Georgia presidential election 2024, parliamentary election 2024 56 percent in the first round of parliamentary elections in 2020, 26 percent in the second round 27
Greece Parliamentary elections 2023 57% in the parliamentary elections in July 2019
Ireland presidential election 2025, parliamentary election 2024 just under 63% in the parliamentary elections in 2020, just under 44% in the presidential elections in 2018
Iceland general election 2021, presidential election 2020 79% in the 2016 general election, about 76% in the 2016 presidential election, 81% in the 2017 general election
Italy parliamentary elections by 2023, presidential elections 2023 72.9% in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Kosovo presidential election (indirectly by parliament) 2021, parliamentary election 2025 45 percent in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Croatia parliamentary elections 2024, presidential elections 2025 55 percent in the 2020 presidential election, 46 percent in the 2020 parliamentary election
Latvia parliamentary elections 2022, parliament elects president 2023, 54% in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Liechtenstein Parliamentary elections 2026 78% in the 2021 parliamentary elections
Lithuania presidential and parliamentary elections 2024 just over 47 percent in the first round of the 2020 parliamentary elections; 57 and 53 percent respectively in the two rounds of the presidential election 2019
Luxembourg Parliamentary elections 2023 about 90 percent in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Northern Macedonia presidential election 2024, parliamentary election 2024 52 percent in the 2020 parliamentary election, 45 percent in the 2019 presidential election
Malta Parliamentary elections 2022, Parliament appoints a new president 2024 just over 92% in the 2017 parliamentary elections
Moldova parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2024 46 and 53 percent respectively in both presidential elections in 2020; 49 percent in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Monaco Parliamentary elections 2023 70% in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Montenegro presidential election 2023, parliamentary election 2024 77 percent in the 2020 parliamentary election, 64 percent in the 2018 presidential election
Netherlands Parliamentary elections 2021 81.9 percent in the 2017 parliamentary election
Norway parliamentary elections 2021 78% in the 2013 parliamentary election, 78% in the 2017 parliamentary election
Poland parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2025 62% in the 2019 parliamentary elections, 68% in the second round of the 2020 presidential election
Portugal parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2021 54.5% in the 2019 parliamentary elections, 49% in the 2016 presidential elections
Romania presidential election 2024, parliamentary election 2024 33% in the 2020 parliamentary elections, 50% in the first round of the 2019 presidential elections
Russia parliamentary elections 2021; presidential election 2024 just over 67% in the 2018 presidential election; just under 48% in the 2016 parliamentary elections
San Marino parliamentary elections by 2024 56% in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Switzerland Parliamentary elections 2023 45% in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Serbia presidential election 2022, parliamentary election 2024 49 percent in the 2020 parliamentary elections
Slovakia parliamentary elections 2024, presidential elections 2024 65.8 percent in the parliamentary elections 2020, 59.8 percent in the parliamentary elections 2016, just over 48 and 41 percent respectively in the two presidential elections 2019
Slovenia parliamentary elections 2022, presidential elections 2022 52 percent in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Spain Parliamentary elections 2023 75.8% in the parliamentary elections in April 2019, 70% in the parliamentary elections in November 2019
UK Parliamentary elections 2024 about 69% in the 2017 parliamentary elections, 67% in the 2019 parliamentary elections
Sweden parliamentary elections 2022 87.2 percent in the 2018 parliamentary election
Czech Republic Parliamentary elections 2021, presidential elections 2023 60.8% in the 2017 parliamentary elections; 61.9% in the first round of the 2018 presidential election and 66.6% in the second round
Turkey 2023 parliamentary elections, 2023 presidential elections 87% in the 2018 presidential and parliamentary elections; 85.4% in the 2017 referendum
Germany Parliamentary elections 2021 76.2% in the federal election 2017
Ukraine parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2024 62% in the 2019 presidential election, 49.8% in the 2019 parliamentary election
Hungary Parliamentary elections 2022 67% in the 2018 parliamentary elections
Vatican City State
Belarus (Belarus) parliamentary elections 2023, presidential elections 2025 77% in the 2019 parliamentary elections, 84% in the 2020 presidential elections
Austria parliamentary elections 2024, presidential elections 2022 76% in the 2019 parliamentary elections, 73% in the 2016 presidential elections

European commission

It consists of 28 members. They are called “commissioners”. The governments of the member states propose the commissioners. The European Parliament must agree with the commissioners. You remain a member of the commission for 5 years.

Although the commissioners are appointed by the member countries, they do not act for their country. They should be independent and can only do tasks for the EU.

The Commission proposes the guidelines and regulations to be adopted by the Council of the European Union. Only the Commission can do that. She also determines when and how often she does this. The Commission is careful to ensure that the new guidelines and regulations are properly applied in the member countries.

Council of the European Union

The Council of the EU is voting on new guidelines and regulations so that they can become valid. The Council is the main decision-making body of the EU.

The Council of the European Union consists of ministers. The ministers always come from the member countries. Depending on which directive is currently to be adopted, there are other ministers in the commission.

If, for example, a directive for children and young people is to be adopted today, the ministers for youth are there today. If a directive on car traffic is adopted tomorrow, all transport ministers will come. This ensures that the ministers who know best about the subject always vote on the directive.

The president changes every six months. The president is always the head of government of a member state. When all countries have had their turn, you just have to start all over again. From January to June 2007, German Chancellor Angela Merkel was President of the EU Council.

European Council

Members are the heads of state and government of the member countries. From Germany this is currently Angela Merkel. The European Council sets new goals and tasks to be accomplished in the coming years. The members meet twice a year.

European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice is the court for the EU. If there is a dispute over the new EU directives and regulations, the judges must settle the dispute. Everything that has been decided here applies to all people in the EU. There is no other court that can change the decision of that court.

European Court of Auditors

Here it is calculated exactly how much money was spent by the EU. The Court of Auditors also checks whether it was allowed to spend the money. However, he may not impose penalties if too much money has been spent.

Europe and the outside world

Access to the sea has always played a big role. The eastern Mediterranean was once seen as the center of the inhabited or civilized world. Here the three continents meet Africa, Asia and Europe, and here were good sea-host connections. The seaways connected the cultural landscapes of valleys and coastal plains. Here, knowledge, skills and important cultural plants found their way from Asia and Africa to Europe. The “known world” was later extended to several of the countries around the Mediterranean and its hive. Gradually, Europe’s centers of power moved to different parts of the continent, and European influence, civilization and exploitation spread in other parts of the world.

Europe was previously ravaged by conquerors from Africa and Asia. As late as 1683, the Turks stopped in front of Vienna. In the 1700s, 1800s and 1900s. Europe sent armies, emigrants and industrial goods to other continents where communities changed or perished. The change in production patterns was often detrimental to the living conditions of the locals. Agriculture shifted from self-sufficiency to production to export; first in Europe, then in the foreign continents that had to supply raw materials for Europe’s factories and food and enjoyment to the people of Europe. Throughout the 1800s and 1900s. Europe’s business community was exposed to ever stronger competition. Many European industrial areas have experienced crises related to business closures and restructuring. It went wrong early in the textile and clothing industry, with cities like Verviers, Norrköping and Manchester hit hard. Later, for example, the machine industry, shipyards, car factories and also the high-tech industrial branches were affected. The successive transformation of European iron and steel production from a myriad of small farms at the raw material sources to large coastal and transport hubs lasted 150 years and is a story in itself. Many cities lost almost all industrial workplaces, and only a few large companies, which produced huge quantities of iron and steel and were able to produce raw materials from around the globe, produced with profits. The successive transformation of European iron and steel production from a myriad of small farms at the raw material sources to large coastal and transport hubs lasted 150 years and is a story in itself. Many cities lost almost all industrial workplaces, and only a few large companies, which produced huge quantities of iron and steel and were able to produce raw materials from around the globe, produced with profits. The successive transformation of European iron and steel production from a myriad of small farms at the raw material sources to large coastal and transport hubs lasted 150 years and is a story in itself. Many cities lost almost all industrial workplaces, and only a few large companies, which produced huge quantities of iron and steel and were able to produce raw materials from around the globe, produced with profits.

Europe accounts for a very large part of the world’s energy consumption, and a large part is covered by imports. Power plants and vast oil refineries at many port cities are scenic testimonies to this. The oil crisis in 1973 accelerated both energy savings and redistribution of energy supply. Renewable energy was supported, and fossil fuels other than oil, along with nuclear power, were preferred in electricity generation. Much of Europe’s oil and coal consumption must continue to be imported, and Russia accounts for considerable parts of European production and of fossil energy reserves, not least natural gas. In several countries, especially France, Belgium and Sweden, nuclear power covers large parts of electricity generation, while Russia, Ukraine and other countries’ nuclear power plants not only have a decisive impact on electricity supply, but also represent a significant environmental risk.

European industry continues to be transformed with major local and regional consequences, negative in the old industrial areas and positive in the new growth regions. Industries in need of research background and skilled labor have grown in importance, but the growing tertiary sector has not been able to employ so much as it outweighs women’s entry into the labor market, immigration and less employment in primary and secondary occupations.

Europe has two major and partially interrelated labor market issues: unemployment and immigration. Unemployment is largely structural and difficult to remedy. Migrations across Europe’s state borders are partly a response to labor demand that started in the 1960s and partly as a result of the globally growing migrations. Immigrants come from both civil war areas in Europe and from the Third World. Some immigrant groups are well integrated and are an immediate benefit to overall employment; other groups are widely referred to as poorly paid jobs or unemployment.