Japan. According to countryaah, Tokyo is the capital and one of the major cities within the country of Japan. Japan, whose beaches were spared from the tsunami in December 2004, began the year by making a huge contribution to disaster victims: the equivalent of over SEK 4 billion.
- Also see abbreviationfinder.org for how the acronym JA stands for the country of Japan and other meanings of this two-letter abbreviation.
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi had some problems during the year, but he was most pleased. He was initially criticized for being too passive about reforming the economy and his powerful Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). He tackled this with an advanced political strategy. Parliament first rejected his proposal to privatize the Japanese post, the world’s largest financial institution. Breakers out of his own LDP voted against. Then the prime minister invested her prestige on a new election. It was held on September 11 and gave him a grand victory. The LDP increased from 212 to 296 of the lower house’s 480 seats. Privatization, which will stimulate the economy, was thus secured and the enemies of the party defeated. The 63-year-old.
The leader of the largest opposition party, Japan’s Democratic Party (DPJ), Katsuya Okada, then resigned from the 177 to 113 seats. He was succeeded by Seiji Maehara.
For the first time since statistics began to be published, Japan’s population has shrunk, it is officially announced – an expected development due to low nativity.
Japan’s economy continued to rise. In January, Nikkei’s stock index was 11,375.96 points. In November, the index reached its highest level in five years with 14 623.12. But it is very far from Nikkei’s record level – 38,915.87 in 1989. Japan retained his position as the world’s second largest economy after the United States, but with some concern saw the more dynamic China approaching.
With China, Koizumi had quite serious problems. Beijing resisted Japan’s quest to become a member of the UN Security Council. In April, a new Japanese history book tore up China and South Korea, which they felt blamed Japan’s war crimes. Chinese youth vandalized Japan’s consulate in Shanghai and Japanese restaurants. Only after three weeks did the Beijing regime stop the protesters.
When this storm subsided, a new one erupted; Japan announced that gas drilling would be initiated in an area of the East China Sea that China also claims. Beijing described this as a “serious provocation”.
The next crisis occurred when Koizumi visited for the fifth time on October 16 the Yasukunite Temple in Tokyo, honoring 2.5 million Japanese war victims, among them convicted war criminals. Koizumi says that the visits are private. 45% of the Japanese in a survey found that they were unsuitable. But as many as 42% liked them.
Tokyo approved the US stationing a nuclear reactor-driven US aircraft carrier in Japan, an unpopular decision because of the US nuclear bomb 60 years ago. At the same time, however, the United States agreed to remove 7,000 of its 47,000 soldiers from Japan
Concern for North Korea’s nuclear weapons contributed to Japan’s desire for a better defense. In the autumn, LDP formulated a proposal for a change in the constitution that would entail legalization of the defense force that has been built up.
On the romantic side, it can be mentioned that 36-year-old Princess Sayoko gave up her title to childhood friend Yoshiki Kuroda. They were consecrated November 15.
Parliament adopted a distrust agenda for the Prime Minister, after failing to propose electoral reforms needed to stop the chronic corruption within the political system. The ruling party was split, losing 54 parliamentarians. New elections were held for July. The two outbreak groups led by Tsutomu Hata and Masayoshi Takemura formed new parties: Renewal and the Pioneers.
In April, there was another discussion about sending forces abroad after a civilian and a Japanese police officer as part of the UN forces had been killed in Cambodia in preparation for the elections there.
Diplomatic relations with Russia improved somewhat when Japan declared that it would no longer be conditional on the return of the Kuriler archipelago before financial support could be granted to Russia. However, Japan did not waive the return claim.
1993 The LDP loses its grip on power
The parliamentary elections of 18 July 93 were marked by 67.3% of the lowest turnout in the post-war period. A clear sign of population dissatisfaction with the wave of corruption. The LDP that had been in power since 1955 lost its majority in the Kokkai parliament. It got 228 out of the House of Representatives’ 512 seats against 275 at the previous elections in 90. The result was sufficient to tip the political balance of power that had existed in Japan since World War II. Miyazawa who had declared before the election that he would remain in office even after the election now changed his attitude. A few days after the election, he resigned as party chairman and assumed responsibility for the election defeat. He was replaced on the post by Yohei Kono.
In July, the “new majority” signed a government agreement. The coalition consisted of the Socialist Party, the Renewal Party, the Buddhist Komeito Party, the Social Democrats, the United Social Democrats and the Pioneer Party. It was a minimum basis that did not make up for fundamental change. In August, the former governor of Kunamoto province, Hosokawa was elected prime minister. Upon his accession, he announced the implementation of comprehensive electoral reform to tackle corruption, fight recession and implement reforms within the pension and health care system. At his first speech in parliament, Hosokawa referred to the aggressiveness his country had exhibited from its 30s to the end of World War II against its Asian neighbors. On the 48th anniversary of the Japanese capitulation – the 15th.colonialism.
In December, the Japanese government opened the country’s rice market for the first time by allowing imports from abroad of 4% of annual national consumption of 10 million tonnes. Many families responded by hoarding nationally made rice, and traders speculated on prices. “Sir. rice ‘- or coma – plays an almost sacred role in Japanese society, where it is linked to earth and ancestors.
The Japanese trade surplus increased from $ 107 billion in 92 to 150 in 93. This created increasing problems in international markets – particularly in relation to the United States. In addition to the problems caused by this surplus, Japan was also increasingly hit by the global economic crisis. The most visible consequence was unemployment, which began to rise in 92. In 96, it reached 3.2% at its presently highest level.
In 1992, a corruption scandal broke out within the highest circles of government when LDP’s historic leader Shin Kanemaru admitted to accepting bribes. Kanemaru was arrested in March 93, to be released shortly after amnesty. When Miyazawa was followed by Hosokawa, the Japanese Industry Association declared that it would cease its “contribution” to the LDP. According to stories in the local press, these “contributions” rose to $ 1 billion annually. In August, 165 politicians and 445 businessmen were arrested for irregularities in the July 18 elections. 5,500 electoral fraud cases were initiated. In October, Shinji Kiyoyama was arrested for bribing a number of building permits. He was president of Kajima – the country’s second largest construction group.
Prime Minister Hosokawa’s “romance” with the bourgeois public began to chill in early 94, after his popularity reached towering heights. The press’s assessments of him became very harsh and he faced accusations of having received extensive bribery against gene services. In February, he was forced to abandon a project he had launched himself to ensure the cohesion of the government coalition. Faced with intense pressure, he had to carry out public self-criticism and explain the ineptitude with which he had handled the situation.
A new $ 140 billion plan to reactivate the economy also faced severe criticism. Its effectiveness was questioned and the press argued that it did not solve the fundamental problems associated with the growing average age of the population.