According to ehistorylib, in 2005, Madagascar had an estimated population of 18 million people with a population growth rate of 2.3%. The majority of the population was concentrated in the eastern and central highland regions, while the coastal areas were less densely populated. The economy in 2005 was largely based on subsistence agriculture, with rice being the most important crop. Other crops included cassava, sweet potatoes, and beans. The export sector was dominated by coffee and vanilla while other exports included sugarcane, cloves, cocoa beans and shrimp. Foreign relations in 2005 were largely focused on development assistance with Madagascar receiving aid from a number of countries including France, Japan and the United States. The politics of Madagascar in 2005 were dominated by President Marc Ravalomanana who had been elected to office in 2002 after a highly contested election which had resulted in violence between supporters of different candidates. Ravalomanana’s government implemented major economic reforms aimed at improving living standards for all Malagasy citizens as well as encouraging foreign investment.
Madagascar. Hopes for strong economic growth, driven by increased tourism and successful exports of textiles and vanilla, were dampened by an energy crisis that was mainly caused by the sharply increased oil price. The state-owned energy company Jirama bases 60% of its electricity generation on diesel and ended up with serious financial problems during the year. The many electricity outages irritated the population and led to reduced confidence in the government. Vanilla production also had problems after the world market price fell by over 70% in less than a year. Exiled growers were tempted to instead engage in illegal extraction of gemstones with potentially devastating consequences for Madagascar’s unique nature.
In August, Madagascar’s entry into the South African Regional Economic Cooperation Organization (SADC) raised renewed hopes for financial stimulus.
According to countryaah, Antananarivo is the capital and one of the major cities within the country of Madagascar. The government’s decision to close the fast-growing Christian community of FPVM (New Protestant Church in Madagascar) has drawn criticism. According to the government, the FPVM had illegally entrenched church premises belonging to the rival community FJKM (Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar), but critics accused the government of violating the secular constitution, pointing out that President Marc Ravalomanana is the Vice President of FJKM.
- Also see abbreviationfinder.org for how the acronym MA stands for the country of Madagascar and other meanings of this two-letter abbreviation.
The country was characterized by continued tensions. Also within the military. In May 2010, 4 soldiers were killed during an internal showdown at the Fort Duchesne military barracks. Several officers and at least 22 gendarmes were subsequently arrested. During the November referendum, a bunch of officers tried to carry out a military coup and announced the reduction of the “Military Council for the Welfare of the People.” However, they surrendered quickly. In October, several bomb attacks were carried out. Among other things. at the Department of Foreign Affairs.
Camille Albert Vital was replaced in November 2011 as Prime Minister by former diplomat Omer Beriziky. During the year, the former colonial power France opened to Madagascar and Rajoelina was received in the Elysee mansion by French President Sarkozy. However, most countries including the AU continued to keep the country at a distance.
Many hundreds were killed around the country during 2012. It was often cattle thieves or suspected cattle thieves it went above and beyond, and the security forces frequently participated in the killings. The security forces enjoyed almost total impunity for the attacks they committed. Finally, the authorities continued to crack down on the media. At least 5 radio stations were closed during the year and journalists faced harassment and threats.
The political crisis continued and in 2012, the African Union (AU) demanded that the two potential top candidates for a presidential election – Rajoelina and Ravalomanana – both withdraw their candidacies. They agreed to this in December 2012 and February 2013. After several years of delay, the elections were held in October/December of the same year. It was won by Hery Rajaonarimampianina who got 53.5% of the vote, while Jean Louis Robinson got 46.5%. The turnout in the first round was 61.8% while in the second round it fell to 50.7%. International observers described the election as free and credible. Rajaonarimampianina was inducted into the January 2014 presidential post.
Parliamentary elections were also held in connection with the presidential elections. It was won by the party Together with President Andry Rajoelina, who got 17.3% of the vote, giving 49 seats in the 151-seat parliament. Ravalomanana Movement got 10.8% and 20 seats; Vondrona Politika received 8.2% and 13 seats. The remaining mandates were spread across 28 smaller parties and lists as well as 25 independent candidates.