Peru 2005

South America

Yearbook 2005

Peru. According to countryaah, Lima is the capital and one of the major cities within the country of Peru. Alberto Fujimori, who was President of Peru from 1990 to 2000 but who resigned and fled to Japan, appeared in Chile’s Santiago capital in November to, according to his own statement, stand in the Peruvian presidential election in April 2006. He was arrested by the Chilean police and held in custody pending an extradition request from Peru. A delegation led by Peru’s interior minister Rómulo Pizarro traveled to Chile to prepare one. Fujimori is accused of embezzling large sums of public money and of using illegal death squads during his time as president. The government of Peru has for many years in vain requested Fujimori extradited from Japan.

President Alejandro Toledo was subjected to severe political pressure during the year and was forced to, among other things, to several government reforms. However, unlike the presidents of neighboring Ecuador and Bolivia, he has managed to stay in power, thanks in part to strong economic growth of an average of 5% per year since he was elected in 2001. In May, he was found guilty by a congressional committee of electoral fraud during the election campaign by allowing forged signatures to be able to register his party Perú Posible (PP), but Congress chose not to conduct a vote of no confidence in him.

It was also troubling in the province of Apurímac, where Movimiento Etnocacerista (ME), an extremist nationalist organization such as advocating the death penalty for both homosexuality and corrupt politicians, took the police station in the city of Andahuaylas on New Year’s Day and held hostage for three days. Ollanta Humala, brother of the leader of the movement and its “friendlier face”, intends to run for office in the 2006 presidential election and enjoys ever-increasing popularity.

Spanish conquest

Huayna Capac’s death triggered a new succession war between Huáscar who reigned in Cusco and his little brother, who from Quito ruled the northern part of the empire. In 1532, the balance began to tip in favor of Atahualpa when a group of 180 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro landed in Tumbes. The Spaniards killed Atahualpa’s supporters, but when they subsequently claimed to recognize him as the rightful ruler of the empire, they succeeded in meeting him in Cajamarca. They captured him and demanded a fabulous ransom for him in gold and silver. From prison, Atahualpa Huáscar was killed before he was strangulated in 1533. The forces of the empire were thus paralyzed. The Spaniards arrived in Cusco and crowned Topa Hualpa on the basis of an intention to rule the empire through the Inca emperor.

Topa Hualpa died a few months later and the Spaniards strengthened their alliance with the Huáscar faction by handing over the throne to his brother, Manco Capac and spreading the remains of Atahualpa’s army. When Pizarro in 1535 prohibited Manco Capac from restoring control of the coastal areas and areas in the north that remained loyal to Atahualpa or lacked central government, Manco Capac understood that the Spaniards were a far greater threat than any of Atahualpa’s followers, and in 1536 he held therefore, Cusco besieged for over a year. His forces were eventually beaten by Diego de Almagro, who returned after a conquest trip to Chile.

Manco Capac then formed an independent cast in the Amazon. It existed until 1572 when the last Inca, Titu Cusi Yupanqui was poisoned. Tahuantinsuyo’s power was gradually diluted after Pizarro in 1535 on the coast founded Lima as the center of Spanish power. Colonialization fundamentally changed society. The old owners of the land were replaced. The payment of taxes and forced labor dissolved the foundations of the old society. The ancient gods were officially replaced by the Catholic religion, although the Spaniards failed to eradicate the cult of the small gods. However, there were areas and towns from the old empire that survived for centuries beyond the reach of the Spaniards. The best example of this is the city of Machu Picchu, 80 km northwest of Cusco, first discovered in 1911.

Rivalry between the various conquistadores made the Spanish throne unable for decades to undermine its authority. Unhappy with what he had been able to conquer in Chile, Almagro therefore besieged Cusco until in 1538 he was defeated and executed. His followers conspired with Almagro’s son and attacked Pizarro’s palace. Pizarro himself was killed in 1541. However, the Spanish throne refused to recognize the young Almagro, who was instead captured and executed in 1542, but the conquerors under the leadership of Gonzalo Pizarro – Francisco’s brother – were dissatisfied with the new king’s new laws, and did same year rebellion. The laws would limit their power and wealth. In fact, they were independent of Spain until 1544, when Gonzalo Pizarro was defeated and executed.

Only with the appointment of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1569 did Spain consolidate its dominion over the area. The institutions of the natives were in a way adapted to the needs of the Spaniards. The chiefs of the various Andean nations, for an extended period, administered the interests of their communities, while taking on the responsibility of collecting and printing indigenous labor for the Spaniards’ mines. But it was no peaceful coexistence and Tupac Amaru – son of Manco Capac – raised the native peasants to fight against the Spaniards. However, they captured him and executed him in 1571.