According to ehistorylib, in 2005, Sweden had a population of just over 9 million people. The economy was largely based on the export of goods such as machinery and electronic equipment. Foreign relations between Sweden and other countries were generally positive. In 2005, Sweden joined the European Union and became part of the Schengen Agreement which allowed for free movement within Europe. The politics in Sweden were dominated by the Social Democratic Party which was led by Göran Persson. This party included both parties from the Left and Right of the political spectrum and was based on a social democratic platform. The government focused on economic development, poverty reduction and improving access to education and healthcare services for its citizens. There were also plans to hold elections in 2006 which would determine the new leadership of the country. Overall, it seemed that there were promising prospects for political stability and economic growth in Sweden during this period.
The breakthrough of democracy
During the first two decades of the 20th century, political life was dominated by the closely intertwined issues of voting, parliamentary and defense. As early as the 1890s, an out-of-parliamentary voting rights movement with general and equal voting rights appeared on the program, with support mainly from socialists and radical liberals. The increase in conscription time gave the voting friends an argument that made a deep impression on the conservative camp (“a man, a voice, a rifle”). Around the turn of the century, most people considered voting reform as inevitable; however, opinions differed on its design. The left wanted to introduce general voting rights without restrictions and with the emphasis of power placed on the elected second chamber. The right, supported by some liberal peasants, wanted an extension of voting rights with guarantees of continued influence for the well-off. The electoral reform carried out by the Prime Minister and the right-wing leader Arvid Lindman in 1907–09 meant a victory for the latter line. It gave the men general voting rights to the Second Chamber, cut the number of votes in municipal elections to a maximum of 40 but, on the other hand, introduced proportional elections to both chambers and so-called ‘dashes’, which mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber’s veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform. payout line that mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber’s veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform. payout line that mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber’s veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform.
- Also see abbreviationfinder.org for how the acronym SE stands for the country of Sweden and other meanings of this two-letter abbreviation.
The class contradictions continued to be large and became clear during the 1909 strike. The Second Chamber election in 1911 became a victory for the left, Lindman resigned and a liberal government was formed under Karl Staaff. At the same time, the growing contradictions put the defense issue on the agenda. According to his election promises, Staaff tried to hold back on defense spending. the construction of an already decided armor boat (the F-boat). The reaction from the defense-friendly right became violent and manifested itself, among other things. in Sven Hedin’s pamphlet “A Warning Word” (1912) and in the farmer’s train to the king, Gustaf V (1907-50), who in his courtyard figure supported the farmers’ demands for defense reinforcements (February 1914). Staaff saw in the king’s action a violation of the principles of parliamentarism and submitted his resignation application (see the courtyard crisis). A royal government official was formed under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, who was able to remain until 1917 thanks to the peace peace between the parties following the outbreak of the First World War. Hammarskjöld pursued a strict neutrality policy, but through his uncompromising attitude he made a trade policy settlement with Britain difficult, and from 1916 increased dissatisfaction in the light of commodity shortages, inflation and rationing (“Hunger shield”). Discontent and class contradictions increased, and revolutionary moods spread. By breaking out of the Social Democratic Party, a Socialist Left Party was formed, which under varying party designations – first Sweden’s Social Democratic Left Party, then Sweden’s Communist Party, Sweden’s Socialist Party (“Kilbom Communists”), the Left Party Communists,
In the spring of 1917 Hammarskjöld resigned, and after a left victory in the second parliamentary elections in the autumn, a liberal-social democratic coalition government was formed under Nils Edén, an event which is usually referred to as the definitive breakthrough of modern parliamentaryism. Impressed by Germany’s defeat, in 1918–21, a constitutional reform was implemented that removed most of the remaining restrictions on political democracy. The women were given the right to vote for the second chamber, the strike line was abolished as was the forty-degree scale, which led to the first chamber’s democratization. At the same parliament, an eight-hour working day was also decided.
|about 11000 BC
|Late Paleolithic reindeer hunters in southern Sweden.
|about 7500 BC
|Mesolithic collectors and hunters populate the coastal regions of central and northern Sweden.
|Southern and Central Sweden are reached by agriculture in the form of funnel culture. Boxes and trenches are being erected.
|about 3300 BC
|In southern Sweden, strong continental influences appear in the form of the battle ax culture; in Central and Northern Sweden, an Eastern influence is asserting.
|about 1800 BC
|The Bronze Age is entering and giving rise in southern and central Sweden gradually to local as well as regional chiefdom.
|about 1100–500 BC
|During the younger Bronze Age, Sweden is linked to Mellannorrland to the Nordic cultural sphere, while northern Norrland is integrated into the Sami.
|about 500 BC
|The Iron Age is coming. Local iron production is mainly conducted in southern Sweden.
|BC – 400 AD
|Strong tendencies towards social stratification and centralization occur in virtually all of Sweden.
|The transformation of society continues, and the principality arises.
|Regional kingdoms are formed in both the Svea and Götaland landscapes. Important central locations include: Old Uppsala and Birka.
|Sweden is Christianized, and a church organization is being built.
|The royal power is consolidated.
|Struggle between the Erican and Swordsmen.
|Uppsala becomes archbishopric.
latter part of the 13th century
|The Swedish empire in Finland is consolidated. The National Council is established, a county organization is set up and several cities are founded.
|The privileges of worldly and spiritual salvation are confirmed.
|The battle between Birger Magnusson and his brothers ends with Magnus Eriksson being elected king and the letter of liberty being issued.
beginning of the 13th century
|The bondage is definitely ending.
|The national and city laws are added.
|Digger death is followed by the late medieval agricultural crisis.
|After a rebellion, Magnus Eriksson is deposed, and Albrekt of Mecklenburg is elected king.
|Union entered into between Denmark, Norway and Sweden (Kalmar Union).
|Recurring battles between Union kings and between different noble factions. Karl Knutsson (Bonde), as well as later national governor, lays the foundation for a national Swedish kingdom.
|Stockholm’s blood bath.
|Rebellion against Christian II.
|Gustav Eriksson (Vaasa) is elected king.
|Västerås meeting breaks the bishops’ power. Withdrawal of the church’s property to the crown begins.
|Breaking with the papacy.
|Sweden becomes an heirloom.
|Reval (Tallinn) with surrounding countryside takes place under Sweden.
|The Nordic seven-year war against Denmark, Lübeck and Poland, ended with peace in Szczecin.
|Rebellion against Erik XIV, who is deposed.
|War on Russia.
|Johan III’s church policy initiates an approach to Catholicism.
|Sigismund, since 1587 king of Poland, inherits Sweden.
|Uppsala meeting gives Sweden a Lutheran confessional church.
|Peace in Teusina with Russia. Narva and all of Estonia are recognized as Swedish.
|Sigismund is deposited.
|The Kalmar War against Denmark, ended with the peace in Knäred.
|Gustav II Adolf’s King Declaration.
|The peace in Stolbova ends Sweden’s involvement in the Russian throne struggle. Kexholm County and Ingermanland become Swedish.
|Conflict with Poland. At the standstill in Altmark in 1629, Poland acknowledges Livland as Swedish and gives Sweden ports at the mouths of Wisła and Nemuna for six years.
|Sweden intervenes in the Thirty Years War.
|Gustav II Adolf falls in the battle of Lützen.
|Government form on the guardianship board and administration.
|War with Denmark, ended with peace in Brömsebro, which gives Sweden Halland of 30 years, Gotland, Ösel, Jämtland and Härjedalen.
|Westphalian peace gives Sweden Vorpommern, Wismar and Bremen-Verden.
|Parliament with great contradictions between the nobility and the nobility.
|Kristina abdicates, and Karl X Gustav becomes king.
|Partial reduction is decided. War against Poland.
|Russia attacks Sweden.
|Denmark declares war.
|The train over the Belt and the peace in Roskilde, which gives Sweden Skåne, Bornholm, Blekinge, Halland, Bohuslän and Trondheim counties.
|Bornholm and Trondheim counties back to Denmark.
|Sweden, from 1672 in association with France, is engaged in war against Brandenburg.
|Denmark and the Netherlands declare war.
|Frederna in Lund, Saint Germain and Celle.
|Decisions on reduction and guardianship. The Carolinian monarchy begins to take shape.
|New church team.
|Russia, Denmark and Saxony attack Sweden and Holstein – Gottorp and start the Great Nordic War.
|The peace in Altranstädt seals August the strong defeat.
|The Battle of Poltava and the Swedish Army surrender at Perevolotjna. Denmark declares war.
|Karl XII falls at Fredriksten.
|One empire is abolished. The freedom period begins.
|Peace in Nystad. The Baltic provinces resign to Russia.
|New parliamentary agenda.
|Arvid Horn is leaving, the hats are taking power.
|War against Russia, south-eastern Finland is canceled.
|The valley rebellion (“the big valley dance”).
|The big shift statute gas.
|War against Prussia (Pomeranian War).
|Younger caps take power.
|Freedom of expression and the principle of publicity are constitutionally protected.
|Gustav III’s coup d’état ends the freedom period.
|War on Russia.
|The Association and Security Act.
|Gustav III is murdered.
|War on Russia. Finland resigns in peace in Fredrikshamn.
|Gustav IV Adolf is deposed. New constitution based on power sharing.
|French marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte is elected Swedish successor to the throne.
|Sweden and Norway form a union.
|A statute of legal change is issued, which in the long run leads to the dissolution of the villages.
|Lars Johan Hierta founded Aftonbladet as a body for the liberal opposition.
|Liberal breakthrough at 1840-41 years of parliament.
|The public school charter is issued.
|The oblique being abolished.
|Pedigrees begin to be built throughout the country.
|New municipal laws.
|Nutrition is introduced.
|Representative reform: the parliamentary day is replaced by a two-chambered kingdom day.
|The Prime Minister’s Office is set up.
|The Social Democratic Party is founded.
|The Swedish-Norwegian Union is dissolved.
|All adult men have the right to vote for the second chamber.
|The general strike.
|The farmer train and the courtyard crisis.
|The breakthrough of parliamentaryism.
|Democratic breakthrough: universal and equal suffrage for women and men.
|Per Albin Hansson forms government and initiates a long hold of social democratic power.
|The crisis settlement between the Social Democrats and the Peasant League.
|The Saltsjöbads agreement lays the foundation for long-term work peace.
|Sweden manages to stay neutral in World War II. Coalition Government.
|Sweden chooses the path of alliance freedom in the Cold War.
|General occupational pension decision.
|New form of government with single-chamber system and constitutional parliamentaryism.
|Olof Palme is murdered.
|Following the referendum (1994), Sweden joins the European Union.
|Sweden votes against being part of EMU.
|The bourgeois alliance wins the election.
|The Social Democrats form government together with the Environment Party.