Sweden 2005

Europe

The breakthrough of democracy

During the first two decades of the 20th century, political life was dominated by the closely intertwined issues of voting, parliamentary and defense. As early as the 1890s, an out-of-parliamentary voting rights movement with general and equal voting rights appeared on the program, with support mainly from socialists and radical liberals. The increase in conscription time gave the voting friends an argument that made a deep impression on the conservative camp (“a man, a voice, a rifle”). Around the turn of the century, most people considered voting reform as inevitable; however, opinions differed on its design. The left wanted to introduce general voting rights without restrictions and with the emphasis of power placed on the elected second chamber. The right, supported by some liberal peasants, wanted an extension of voting rights with guarantees of continued influence for the well-off. The electoral reform carried out by the Prime Minister and the right-wing leader Arvid Lindman in 1907–09 meant a victory for the latter line. It gave the men general voting rights to the Second Chamber, cut the number of votes in municipal elections to a maximum of 40 but, on the other hand, introduced proportional elections to both chambers and so-called ‘dashes’, which mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber’s veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform. payout line that mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber’s veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform. payout line that mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber’s veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform.

The class contradictions continued to be large and became clear during the 1909 strike. The Second Chamber election in 1911 became a victory for the left, Lindman resigned and a liberal government was formed under Karl Staaff. At the same time, the growing contradictions put the defense issue on the agenda. According to his election promises, Staaff tried to hold back on defense spending. the construction of an already decided armor boat (the F-boat). The reaction from the defense-friendly right became violent and manifested itself, among other things. in Sven Hedin’s pamphlet “A Warning Word” (1912) and in the farmer’s train to the king, Gustaf V (1907-50), who in his courtyard figure supported the farmers’ demands for defense reinforcements (February 1914). Staaff saw in the king’s action a violation of the principles of parliamentarism and submitted his resignation application (see the courtyard crisis). A royal government official was formed under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, who was able to remain until 1917 thanks to the peace peace between the parties following the outbreak of the First World War. Hammarskjöld pursued a strict neutrality policy, but through his uncompromising attitude he made a trade policy settlement with Britain difficult, and from 1916 increased dissatisfaction in the light of commodity shortages, inflation and rationing (“Hunger shield”). Discontent and class contradictions increased, and revolutionary moods spread. By breaking out of the Social Democratic Party, a Socialist Left Party was formed, which under varying party designations – first Sweden’s Social Democratic Left Party, then Sweden’s Communist Party, Sweden’s Socialist Party (“Kilbom Communists”), the Left Party Communists,

In the spring of 1917 Hammarskjöld resigned, and after a left victory in the second parliamentary elections in the autumn, a liberal-social democratic coalition government was formed under Nils Edén, an event which is usually referred to as the definitive breakthrough of modern parliamentaryism. Impressed by Germany’s defeat, in 1918–21, a constitutional reform was implemented that removed most of the remaining restrictions on political democracy. The women were given the right to vote for the second chamber, the strike line was abolished as was the forty-degree scale, which led to the first chamber’s democratization. At the same parliament, an eight-hour working day was also decided.

Historical overview

about 11000 BC Late Paleolithic reindeer hunters in southern Sweden.
about 7500 BC Mesolithic collectors and hunters populate the coastal regions of central and northern Sweden.
about 4000–2800
BC
Southern and Central Sweden are reached by agriculture in the form of funnel culture. Boxes and trenches are being erected.
about 3300 BC In southern Sweden, strong continental influences appear in the form of the battle ax culture; in Central and Northern Sweden, an Eastern influence is asserting.
about 1800 BC The Bronze Age is entering and giving rise in southern and central Sweden gradually to local as well as regional chiefdom.
about 1100–500 BC During the younger Bronze Age, Sweden is linked to Mellannorrland to the Nordic cultural sphere, while northern Norrland is integrated into the Sami.
about 500 BC The Iron Age is coming. Local iron production is mainly conducted in southern Sweden.
BC – 400 AD Strong tendencies towards social stratification and centralization occur in virtually all of Sweden.
400–550 AD The transformation of society continues, and the principality arises.
550-1000 Regional kingdoms are formed in both the Svea and Götaland landscapes. Important central locations include: Old Uppsala and Birka.
1000-1100 centuries Sweden is Christianized, and a church organization is being built.
1100-1200 centuries The royal power is consolidated.
about 1130–1222 Struggle between the Erican and Swordsmen.
1164 Uppsala becomes archbishopric.
The
latter part of the 13th century
The Swedish empire in Finland is consolidated. The National Council is established, a county organization is set up and several cities are founded.
about 1280 The privileges of worldly and spiritual salvation are confirmed.
1302-19 The battle between Birger Magnusson and his brothers ends with Magnus Eriksson being elected king and the letter of liberty being issued.
The
beginning of the 13th century
The bondage is definitely ending.
1323 Nöteborgsfreden.
about 1350 The national and city laws are added.
From 1350 Digger death is followed by the late medieval agricultural crisis.
1363-64 After a rebellion, Magnus Eriksson is deposed, and Albrekt of Mecklenburg is elected king.
1397 Union entered into between Denmark, Norway and Sweden (Kalmar Union).
1434-36 Engelbrecht uprising.
1434-1520 Recurring battles between Union kings and between different noble factions. Karl Knutsson (Bonde), as well as later national governor, lays the foundation for a national Swedish kingdom.
1520 Stockholm’s blood bath.
1521 Rebellion against Christian II.
1523 Gustav Eriksson (Vaasa) is elected king.
1527 Västerås meeting breaks the bishops’ power. Withdrawal of the church’s property to the crown begins.
1530s Breaking with the papacy.
1542-43 Dackefejden.
1544 Sweden becomes an heirloom.
1561 Reval (Tallinn) with surrounding countryside takes place under Sweden.
1563-70 The Nordic seven-year war against Denmark, Lübeck and Poland, ended with peace in Szczecin.
1568 Rebellion against Erik XIV, who is deposed.
1570 War on Russia.
1574 Johan III’s church policy initiates an approach to Catholicism.
1592 Sigismund, since 1587 king of Poland, inherits Sweden.
1593 Uppsala meeting gives Sweden a Lutheran confessional church.
1595 Peace in Teusina with Russia. Narva and all of Estonia are recognized as Swedish.
1599 Sigismund is deposited.
1611-13 The Kalmar War against Denmark, ended with the peace in Knäred.
1611 Gustav II Adolf’s King Declaration.
1617 The peace in Stolbova ends Sweden’s involvement in the Russian throne struggle. Kexholm County and Ingermanland become Swedish.
1617-29 Conflict with Poland. At the standstill in Altmark in 1629, Poland acknowledges Livland as Swedish and gives Sweden ports at the mouths of Wisła and Nemuna for six years.
1630 Sweden intervenes in the Thirty Years War.
1632 Gustav II Adolf falls in the battle of Lützen.
1634 Government form on the guardianship board and administration.
1643-45 War with Denmark, ended with peace in Brömsebro, which gives Sweden Halland of 30 years, Gotland, Ösel, Jämtland and Härjedalen.
1648 Westphalian peace gives Sweden Vorpommern, Wismar and Bremen-Verden.
1650 Parliament with great contradictions between the nobility and the nobility.
1654 Kristina abdicates, and Karl X Gustav becomes king.
1655 Partial reduction is decided. War against Poland.
1656 Russia attacks Sweden.
1657 Denmark declares war.
1658 The train over the Belt and the peace in Roskilde, which gives Sweden Skåne, Bornholm, Blekinge, Halland, Bohuslän and Trondheim counties.
1660 Bornholm and Trondheim counties back to Denmark.
1674 Sweden, from 1672 in association with France, is engaged in war against Brandenburg.
1675 Denmark and the Netherlands declare war.
1679 Frederna in Lund, Saint Germain and Celle.
1680 Decisions on reduction and guardianship. The Carolinian monarchy begins to take shape.
1686 New church team.
1700 Russia, Denmark and Saxony attack Sweden and Holstein – Gottorp and start the Great Nordic War.
1706 The peace in Altranstädt seals August the strong defeat.
1709 The Battle of Poltava and the Swedish Army surrender at Perevolotjna. Denmark declares war.
1718 Karl XII falls at Fredriksten.
1719 One empire is abolished. The freedom period begins.
1721 Peace in Nystad. The Baltic provinces resign to Russia.
1723 New parliamentary agenda.
1738 Arvid Horn is leaving, the hats are taking power.
1741-43 War against Russia, south-eastern Finland is canceled.
1743 The valley rebellion (“the big valley dance”).
1757 The big shift statute gas.
1757-62 War against Prussia (Pomeranian War).
1765 Younger caps take power.
1766 Freedom of expression and the principle of publicity are constitutionally protected.
1772 Gustav III’s coup d’état ends the freedom period.
1788-90 War on Russia.
1789 The Association and Security Act.
1792 Gustav III is murdered.
1808-09 War on Russia. Finland resigns in peace in Fredrikshamn.
1809 Gustav IV Adolf is deposed. New constitution based on power sharing.
1810 French marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte is elected Swedish successor to the throne.
1814 Sweden and Norway form a union.
1827 A statute of legal change is issued, which in the long run leads to the dissolution of the villages.
1830 Lars Johan Hierta founded Aftonbladet as a body for the liberal opposition.
1841 Liberal breakthrough at 1840-41 years of parliament.
1842 The public school charter is issued.
1846 The oblique being abolished.
1853 Pedigrees begin to be built throughout the country.
1862 New municipal laws.
1864 Nutrition is introduced.
1865-66 Representative reform: the parliamentary day is replaced by a two-chambered kingdom day.
1876 The Prime Minister’s Office is set up.
1889 The Social Democratic Party is founded.
1905 The Swedish-Norwegian Union is dissolved.
1907 All adult men have the right to vote for the second chamber.
1909 The general strike.
1914 The farmer train and the courtyard crisis.
1917 The breakthrough of parliamentaryism.
1918-21 Democratic breakthrough: universal and equal suffrage for women and men.
1932 Per Albin Hansson forms government and initiates a long hold of social democratic power.
1933 The crisis settlement between the Social Democrats and the Peasant League.
1938 The Saltsjöbads agreement lays the foundation for long-term work peace.
1939-45 Sweden manages to stay neutral in World War II. Coalition Government.
1949 Sweden chooses the path of alliance freedom in the Cold War.
1959 General occupational pension decision.
1974 New form of government with single-chamber system and constitutional parliamentaryism.
1986 Olof Palme is murdered.
1995 Following the referendum (1994), Sweden joins the European Union.
2003 Sweden votes against being part of EMU.
2006 The bourgeois alliance wins the election.
2014 The Social Democrats form government together with the Environment Party.