The Lorraine (Nancy, Metz) has several similar traits. We observe the differentiation of i followed by y into e, the passage, at least partial, of ü into i (- utum becomes i or, in front of nasal, ę n), of i and a i, the non-diphthongization of e and obefore j (ley, n œy), the reduction of üi to ü, of ei to a, the passage of ei to oi also in front of ł (soloil), of ę in the syllable course to a (matre “to put”), of æ a o (to “time”), the passage from – sj – to h? ?? (maho da mansionem), the conservation of the Germanic h. Morphologically remarkable is the formation of an indicative imperfect by agglutination of the particle or (from ad horam): ž is ãteor “I sang”.
According to payhelpcenter, the Franche-Comté dialect (Besançon) participates in the Lorraine and Burgundian dialects. The Burgundian (Dijon) diphthonga the a tonics only at the absolute final (portei “porto”). The ẹ in the course of a syllable pass to o, and under the action of a palatal to oi (motre da m ĭ ttere, soiche da s ĭ ccam). Before j, ę and ǫ are not diphthongized (n œ from noctem). The incoative suffix – I go out it is very developed, even in the 1st conjugation (ind. pres. portois, subjunctive – oie). Illorum is used as a pers pronoun. tonic: a lo (u) r.
In Champagne (Reims, Troyes), in Berry (Bourges), in Orleanese the specific traits of French predominate, more or less mixed with those of the surrounding dialects. The same can be said for Western dialects in which, normally, ÿ at the end of a syllable does not pass to oi, a becomes, under certain conditions, ei, uei is reduced to œ (Poitou u œ). The vowel ĕ followed by l and then by consonant becomes – iau – o – ia – – ea – – a – (Poitou, Saintonge, Angumese: chapia, chapa, h ??? apa). The 3rd pers. plur. some verbs have an accent shift, cantánt, from which è ãtã, è ãtõ, sãt æ. This phenomenon is widespread throughout the north of France, from Saintonge to southern Lorraine and Franche-Comté.
As for the dialects Provençal and Franco – Provençal, v. these rumors.
It would be arbitrary, as we have seen from the examples, to attribute an absolute objective value to this division of France into dialects. Only by way of abstraction and generalization, and based on historical and geographical facts more or less extraneous to the linguistic criterion, can we speak of dialects. In reality, each phenomenon extends over independent areas, more or less coherent or continuous, whose respective limits intersect in great disorder, each continuing some ancient linguistic unit.
Despite this diversity, indeed in a certain way taking advantage of it, the dialect of Île de France has made continuous progress throughout the French territory from the Middle Ages to today, as a cultural language above the dialects, and therefore as a corrosive element of them. Even outside the political borders of France, the same phenomenon is noted: first of all in the Franco-Provençal territories of Switzerland (cantons of Geneva, Vaud, Neuchâtel, part of the cantons of Valais and Friborg, the western tip of the canton of Bern) and in Luxembourg and Walloon Belgium: as a cultural language, French is in an active struggle with Flemish, especially in the capital, Brussels. In Corsica, French is in progress on local dialects, of the Italian type, and vice versa on the eastern side of the Alps the Franco-Provençal dialects (val d’Aosta, etc.) yield to the Italian. In the Norman islands, English progresses at the expense of the local dialect.
In 1931, French was spoken in Europe by a compact population of around 41 million individuals. Outside Europe, about one and a half million Canadians, originating mainly from Normandy and Saintonge and established in America in the 17th-18th centuries, have remained faithful to French, with many archaic and dialectal characteristics and with Anglicisms. It can be estimated that around 304 million people speak French in colonies (or former colonies) and mandated countries. In addition to the population groups that serve as a cultural language, French is very well known in the educated classes, particularly in the Near East (Romania, Greece), Latin America, etc. From the time of the Treaty of Rastatt (1714), the first international treaty drawn up in French, up to the present day, French is, in fact, the diplomatic language. But the competition from other languages is strongly felt (the Treaty of Versailles is in French and English). Certainly, from the time when the Berlin Academy launched a competition on the “causes of the universality of the French language” (1783) until today the position of French has changed and many countries have reacted against its expansion. However, its place among the major languages of the world remains considerable.