Tunisia 2005

Africa

Yearbook 2005

Tunisia. According to countryaah, Tunis is the capital and one of the major cities within the country of Tunisia. Attorney Mohamed Abbou was sentenced in May to three and a half years in prison for criticizing the treatment of prisoners in the country in an article on the Internet. The verdict prompted many commentators to question Tunisia’s election as host nation for the UN Summit on Information Technology November 16-18 in the capital, Tunis. The OpenNet organization reported at the summit that of 2,000 audited Tunisian websites, 10% had been blocked by the authorities. At the conference, which gathered 17,000 participants from 170 countries, it was decided to set up an international forum, the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), for discussions on Internet countries between. In addition, a small inexpensive hand-loaded computer was presented that would be distributed to 15 million children in poor families worldwide.

Phoenician establishment

Tunisia’s earliest known history is particularly related to the Phoenicians, who established themselves along the coast of North Africa from the 10th century BCE. in the so-called Punic period. With origins in the port city of Tyr in today’s Lebanon, the Phoenicians conducted trade along the coast of present-day Tunisia, and substantially strengthened their position when in 814 BCE. founded Carthage.

The establishment of Carthage and other Phoenician city-states first led to a collection of different Berber tribes, which sought to resist the Phoenician invasion militarily; later a relationship was developed. The Berbers in and around the area that today make up Tunisia and Algeria became known as Numidians, and further west – in Morocco – they were called Moors. A third group, mainly in today’s Libya, became known as garamantes.

The best known of the Numidian rulers was Masinissa, who eventually joined the Romans. Greek sources state that Carthage used Berber mercenaries, including in attacks on Sicily, about 480. One hundred years before this, Greek forces had suffered defeat for the Puniers when they landed at Cape Bon, in a military expedition based on Sicily.

Around 550 BCE Carthage became an economic and military superpower in the western Mediterranean, challenging the maritime power of the Roman Empire. This was after Carthage and the Roman Republic first entered into an agreement regulating trade interests. Fighting, especially over control of trade, led to confrontations, and a total of three wars were fought between the Romans and Carthage; the three Punic warriors.

Roman province

The Third Punic War (149–146 BCE) ended with Carthage being destroyed in 146. The city state was then incorporated into the Roman Empire, along with the surrounding areas, corresponding to much of modern Tunisia.

During Roman rule, several urban-based civilizations emerged in North Africa that were either subordinate to or connected to the Roman Empire. Carthage remained the most important Roman city in this part of Africa, an area later known as the Maghreb, and was made the capital of the Roman province of Africa. Thus, Carthage gained a new flourishing time, economically and culturally, and became the third most important metropolis in the empire, after Alexandria and Rome. Thus, around the city grew an ethnically composed area with strong Roman (Latin) and – eventually – Christian influence. At the same time, several Berber kingdoms exist, with Utica as a still important city, a period also rebuilt as the provincial capital of Carthage.

Immigration from large parts of the Roman Empire contributed to the boom. Among other things, Emperor Julius Caesar sent veterans from his army to the North African possessions, where they settled. Roman colonization also played a major role in economic development, with North Africa, not least Tunisia, becoming a major producer of grain and olive oil for export to Europe.

The decline of the Roman Empire also affected the Maghreb, and in the year 429 a Germanic tribe, the Vandals, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and conquered large parts of the Roman province of Africa, including Carthage (439) and surrounding areas. Emperor Justinian invaded North Africa to regain control and defeated the Vandals in 533-534. Carthage and other parts of the Tunisian coastal areas were then incorporated into the Byzantine Empire in 533-534. Inner parts of the country remained controlled by Berber associations.